독차지/독점하다 (hog ~)

독차지/독점하다 (hog ~) [발언권을 독점하는 사람을 천재다 박학다식하다 (erudite)고 푸짐하게 (effusively) 칭송하는 것은 주입식 (teacher-frontedness)과 표준화 시험밖에 교육을 모르던 시대를 연상하게 한다 (hark back to a time when ~)]

Late last month, a leading Korean newspaper ran a column portraying what a well-known Korean professor, now an octogenarian who worked as a cabinet minister decades ago, did at a luncheon meeting attended by the 10-or-so literary personalities.  

The columnist effusively praised the professor while describing him as “a genius so rare as to pass for a national treasure.” For the columnist, the professor is so “erudite” that his speech “usually accounts for 90% of the whole speech by participants in a given meeting.” This way the columnist saw the professor’s “extremely high level of erudition” in his penchant for hogging the time for speech in a given meeting. For me, the columnist’s view of a genius or erudition harks back to a time when people had no awareness of education outside teacher-frontedness and standardized tests. Under an educational system operating around standardized tests, which are about canned / others-constructed knowledge and about the dichotomy between right and wrong, and make for product-oriented educational practices, teacher-frontedness (i.e., knowledge transportation) prevails to the point of nipping in the bud the student-centered learning process of knowledge transformation (i.e., connecting knowledge with each learner’s own real life experience). The view of education as transporting knowledge from expert’s container (brain) to novice’s vests authority / power in the so-called few experts. As instantiated by the title of “genius,” the social custom of overdoing the cult of the few experts emboldens them to be so arrogant and immaturely behaved as to think nothing of hogging as much time for speech as possible and, thus, anachronistically regarding other participants as destined to play second fiddle to them. In stark contrast, the norm in Canadian education is acquiring critical thinking skills in the process of constructing knowledge through knowledge transformation. Implementing this norm entails valuing and tapping every individual learner’s diverse and unique life experience; and, as a result, is inherently incompatible with typical standardized tests. In what drives home the incompatibility, everybody is an expert and a genius in (to put it simply, no one else can be better at) first accessing and then verbally externalizing / generating ideas / opinions based on their own real life experiences, which are valuable resources to be tapped into their meaningful and effective learning. Under the guidance of a teacher as a facilitator, students collaborate to construct knowledge by broadening their perspectives / horizons. For example, while, as a teacher, observing and facilitating collaborative dialogue, I notice the gap between what students want to express and what they can express and help students express themselves in quality English at will. Collaborative dialogue as a perspective-broadening and, thus, effective teaching/learning method cannot materialize if anyone hogs speech time or dominates what is supposed to be discussion. Google’s longitudinal research project (“What Google learned from its quest to build the perfect team,” 2016, Feb 25, NYT) found that groups with all members equally participating in free-wheeling discussion by far outdistanced groups with only a few members hogging or dominating discussion time in terms of enhancing both collective intelligence and job performance. In what debunks the myth of equating a genius with the ability to hog speech time endlessly, making a prepared presentation is normally no match for successfully fielding unpredictable questions from the audience in terms of a level of required intellectual heft. Knowing full well the above-described superiority of doing collaborative dialogue over hogging speech time, I advise my older daughter, a newly-certified teacher, to interact with students rather than try to fill the instruction time with her lecture; and, I assure her that then enormous benefits would be on the way to not only her students but also herself. Her students would definitely experience meaningful and effective learning. At the same time, she would be amazed at the diversity and uniqueness of every single student’s life experience / opinion, which would occasion her deep understanding of humans and would deepen humanity in her; and, accordingly, she would feel blessed with plentiful opportunities for broadening perspectives. © Chinhyon Kim


. leading (a leading Korean newspaper = 한국의 유력지)

. run a column portraying ~ = ~을 묘사한 칼럼을 싣다

. octogenarian = 나이 80대인 사람

. cabinet minister = 장관; 각료

. so (숫자 + or so = ~쯤/남짓/정도)

 . personality = 유명인사

. effusively = 푸짐히

. genius = 천재

. pass for ~ = ~로 여겨지다

. national treasure = 국보

. erudite = 박학다식하다

. account for ~ = ~의 비율을 점하다

. penchant for ~ = ~을 좋아하는 강한 성향

. hog ~ = ~을 독차지하다; ~을 독점하다  

. hark back to + N = 과거 ~ 시대/시절을 상기시키다

. teacher-frontedness = 주입식

. standardized test = 표준화 시험

. canned = 통조림처럼 미리 준비된


Vancouver 있는 UBC 재학시절에 의대 박사과정 학생한테서 들은 이야기다. UBC 의대 연구실에일본 의사들이 1년간 연수  있었다 한다 일본 의사들은 토론을  했다 한다처음에는 영어를 못해서 토론  하는 것으로만 생각했다 한다일본 의사들이 화장실 가는 사이에 그들이 책상 위에 펴놓은 일본어로  책을  기회가 있었다 한다어떤 손가락을 어떻게 하라는 정도까지 상세한 정보가 통조림처럼 미리 준비된 (“canned”)상태로 책에 수록되어서 일본 의사들은 도서관에 가서 자료 수집하고정리할 필요 없이 그런 책만 붙들고 암송하면 되게 되어 있더라 한다.자기가 스스로  읽고 자료 수집하고 정리하면서 지식을 스스로 구축하는 과정을 통해 비평적 사고방식을 기르는 캐나다 학생들과는 다르게남이 구축하고 정리까지 잘된 지식을 통조림 식품처럼 먹기만 하면되게  책으로 공부하는 스스로 지식을 구축하면서 비평적 사고력과 함께 창의성 (creativity), 상상력 (imagination), 독창성(originality) 기르는 과정이 박탈되거나 소홀한 교육을 받은 일본의사 연수생들은 토론을   수밖에 없겠다고 생각했다 한다.


 dichotomy = 이분법

. make for ~ = ~을 조장하다; ~에 기여하다

. product-oriented educational practice = 결과 중심 교육

. prevail to the point of ~ = ~할 정도로 만연/팽배하다

. nip ~ in the bud = 봉오리일 때 따는 것처럼 ~을 미연에 방지하다

. expert = 전문가

. novice = 풋내기

. vest authority/power in ~ = 권한/권력을 ~에게 부여하다

. instantiate = 예시하다

. cult (overdo the cult of ~ = ~을 과도하게 우러러보다)

. embolden = ~을 대담하게 하게하다

. arrogant = 교만하다

. immaturely behaved = 성숙하지 못한 행동을 하다

. nothing (think nothing of ~ = ~을 아무렇지도 않게 생각하다)

. anachronistically = 시대착오적으로

. fiddle (play second fiddle to sb = ~의 들러리 서다) 

. contrast (in stark contrast = 극명한 대조로)

. acquire critical thinking skills = 비평적 사고 능력 습득하다

. norm = 보편화된 것

. implement = 실행하다

. entail = 1) ~을 수반하다 2) ~을 필요로 하다

. tap ~ = ~을 활용하다

. diverse = 다양한

. unique = 독특한

. inherently = 본질적으로

. incompatible with ~ = ~와는 호환성이 없다/ 서로 맞지 않는다

. drive ~ home = ~을 잘 인식/납득 시키다

. put (to put it simply = 간단하게 표현하자면)

. externalize (verbally externalize ~ = ~을 말로 표현하다)

. facilitator = 도움자

. perspective = 관점

. horizon = 지평선; 시야

. will (at will = 맘껏; 마음대로)

. collaborative dialogue = 토론식 대화

. materialize = 나타나다; 실현되다

. longitudinal = 연구 data 수집을 장기간에 한

. free-wheeling = (회의 따위가) 특정한 테마에 국한되지 않는

. far (by far = 많은 차이로)

. outdistance ~ = ~을 따돌리다; ~보다 앞서다

. terms (in terms of ~ = ~면에서)

. dominate = 지배하다

. match (be no match for ~ = ~의 상대가 안되다; ~에 필적하지 못하다)

. debunk the myth of ~ = ~의 허구정체를 폭로하다; ~허구 가면을 벗기다

. equate A with B = A와 B를 동일시하다

. field questions = 질문에 답변하다

. heft (intellectual heft = 지적인 중량/깊이/폭)

. know full well ~ = ~을 잘 알다

. superiority (the superiority of A over B = B보다 A 우수성)

. newly-certified = 최근에 자격증 취득한

. amaze (be amazed at ~ = ~에 감탄하다/놀라다)

. accordingly = 그런 까닭에


지난달 하순에한국 유력 일간지에 실린  칼럼은어떤 유명한 한국 교수가 한국의 대표적 문인들10 명과 함께한 식사 모임에서  것에 관한 것이었다지금80대인  교수는 수십 년 전에 장관을 역임했다. “[~] 선생은 천재다. [~] 박사 이후 거의 유일무이한국보급 천재다라고 말하며 칼럼니스트는  교수를 푸짐하게 칭송했다. “해박한 지식 있어서  교수는어떤 모임에서든지 보통 마이크를 90% 독점하는것으로 칼럼니스트는 보았다이렇게 칼럼니스트는 교수가 모임에서 발언권을 독점하는 강한 성향에서 교수의 아주 높은 수준의 박학 보았다천재 혹은박학에 관한  칼럼니스트의 견해는 교육하면 주입식과표준화 시험 이외에는 무지한 시대를 연상하게 한다표준화 시험은 통조림처럼 이미 준비된 남이 이미 구축해 놓은 지식 맞냐 틀리냐의 이분법에 관한 것이며결과 중심의 교육실행을 조장한다그런 표준화 시험 중심 교육제도 아래에서는 지식 이동을 지상 목표로하는 주입식이 만연되어서 각자의 삶과 결부시켜서 학생스스로 지식을 구축하는 과정 중심의 교육이 자리 잡지못한다교육은 지식이 전문가의 그릇 ()에서 풋내기의 그릇으로 이동하는 것이라는 견해에서는 권한/권력을소위 전문가라는 소수에게 부여한다. “천재라는 칭호에서   있듯이그런 소수 전문가를 과도하게 우러러보는 사회 관습은 그들을 교만하게 만들고  성숙하지 못한 행동을 하게 해서 그들은 발언권을 가능한 많이 독점하는 것을 아무렇지도 않게 생각하고그럼으로써 시대착오적으로 다른 사람들은 그들에게 들러리 운명을 타고났다고 여기게 한다이와는 아주 대조적으로캐나다 교육에서 보편적 형태는 학습자가 자신의 삶과 결부시키면서 지식을 구축하는 과정에서 비평적 사고능력을 습득하는 것이다이런 보편적 형태를 실행하려면  학습자의 다양하고 독특한 삶의 경험을 존중하고활용해야 한다그러므로이런 보편적 형태 실행과 전형적 표준화 시험은 본질에서 서로 맞지 않는다이런불호환성을 극명하게 나타내는 것은 각자의 삶에 근거한생각 의견을 끄집어내서 말로 표현하는 데에는 각자가전문가고 천재 (간단하게 말해서다른 누구도 본인보다 잘할  없다라는 점이다각자의 삶에 근거한 생각 의견은 각자가 의미 있고 효과적인 학습 경험을  있도록 활용돼야  귀한 자원들이다교사의 도움을받으며학생들은 토론식 대화를 통하여 관점 시야를넓힘으로써 협력하여 지식을 스스로 구축한다예를 들어교사로서 학생들의 토론식 대화 진행을 관찰하고 도우면서나는 학생들이 표현하고 싶어 하는 것과 그들이표현할  있는 것의 차이를 발견하고  발견 사항을토대로 학생들이 고품격 영어로 자신들을 마음껏 표현할 있도록 돕는다어느 사람이 발언권을 독점하든가 토론이 되어야  것을 일장연설로 만들어 버리면관점을넓혀줌으로써 효과적이고 의미 있는 교수법이고 학습법인 토론식 대화는 실현되지 않는다장기간 사내 현장연구 (“완벽한  건설 추구를 통해 Google 사가 배운 ,” 2016 2 25NYT) 통해 Google 사가 알아낸 것은 모든 구성원이 동등하게 발언권을 행사하며 자유 토론을 하는 방법으로 운영하는 집단이 몇몇 소수가 발언권을 독점하거나 토론을 지배하는 집단보다 집단 지능 지수와 업무 수행 지수에서 훨씬 앞선다는사실이다천재와 발언권을 무한으로 독점할  있는 능력을 동일시하는 것의 허구성을  알려주는 사실은 요구되는 지적인 중량에서 미리 준비한 것을 발표하는 것은 청중이 던지는 예측 불가능한 질문들  답변하는 것에 필적하지 못한다발언권을 독점하는 것보다 토론식대화하는 것이 위에 기술한 대로 우월하다는 것을  아는 나는 최근 교사 자격증을 취득한 큰딸에게 수업시간을 강의로 채우려고 하지 말고 학생들과 토론식 대화 소통하라고 조언한다그렇게 하면 어마어마한 이득이 학생들에게뿐만 아니라 큰딸에게도 온다고 장담한다학생들은 분명히 의미 있고 효과적인 학습을 경험할 것이고교사인 큰딸은  학생의 인생 경험의견의 다양함과 독특함에 놀랄 것이고인간에 대해 깊은 이해를하게  것이고인간애가 깊어질 것이고따라서 큰딸은 풍부한 관점 확대 기회에 축복받았다고 느낄 것이다.(2016 3 8)


It’s bad behavior for an actor, anyway, and displays a pitiful ambition to hog the limelight on stage. – Hamlet (today’s English version). Act 3, Scene 2 – 

캐나다 고등학교 11학년 혹은 12학년 영어시간에 읽는 Shakespeare 작품 햄릿에 나오는 구절이다연극에서 중요한 문제가 다루어질 필요가 있을  둔한 관객들이 속절없이 웃고만 있게  있으니 배우들은 임기응변식으로 무엇을  붙여서 연기하려고 하지 말도록 당부하면서임기응변식으로 무엇을  붙여서 연기하는 것은 배우로서 나쁜 짓이며 무대 조명을 독점하려는 (“hog the limelight on stage”) 가증스러운 야망을 드러내는 짓이라고 햄릿이 배우들에게 연극이 무대에 올려지기 직전에 말한다

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